A Corpus-Based Analysis of Future Tense Markers in Indonesian EFL Textbooks for Senior High School

Ikmi Nur Oktavianti, Icuk Prayogi


A well-designed textbook can enhance the teaching and learning of a foreign language and it should also consider the authenticity aspect of the target language. This paper aims at studying the use of future tense markers (i.e. will, be going to) in three EFL textbooks for senior high school in Indonesia and comparing to one of the biggest English corpora, Corpus of Contemporary American English, to investigate the authenticity of the textbooks. This study employs corpus-based analysis as it focuses on the frequency and collocates of future tense markers. This study, however, delimits the scope in conversations of the textbooks and the spoken sub-corpus. It shows that, although ‘will’ and ‘be going to’ are used in the textbooks and the corpus, there are some distinctions observed, be they the frequency of use or the collocates preceding the future tense markers. As for the semantic of the verb collocates, there seem to have many differences. These differences then need to be revisited and re-evaluated to improve Indonesian EFL textbooks materials to equip the English learners in a foreign language context with actual language use.


authenticity, corpus linguistics, future tense, textbooks

Full Text:



Al-Jaboori, A. T. (2008). A comparative study between modals in ESL/EFL tertiary textbooks and actual used by EFL teachers [Ph.D. Thesis]. American University of Sharjah.

Arellano, R. (2018). A corpus linguistics application in the analysis of textbook as national teaching instruments of English as second language in Chile. Actualidades Investigativas e Educacion, 18(1), 1–19.

Ayu, M., & Indrawati, R. (2018). EFL textbook evaluation: The analysis of tasks presented in English textbook. Teknosastik, 16(1), 21–25.

Baker, P. (2010). Sociolinguistics and corpus linguistics. Edinburgh University Press.

Biber, D., & Reppen, R. (2002). What does frequency have to do with grammar teaching? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24(2), 199–208. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263102002048

Brezina, V. (2018). Statistics in corpus linguistics: A practical guide (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316410899

Browne, C., Culligan, B., & Phillips, J. (2013). In focus. Cambridge University Press.

Burton, G. (2012). Corpora and coursebooks: Destined to be strangers forever? Corpora, 7(1), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.3366/corp.2012.0019

Charalambous, A. C. (2011). The role and use of coursebooks in EFL [M.A. Thesis]. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524247.pdf

Cheng, W., & Warren, M. (2007). Checking understandings: Comparing textbooks and a corpus of spoken English in Hongkong. Language Awareness, 16(3), 190–207.

Choi, H.-Y., & Chon, Y. V. (2012). A corpus-based analysis of collocations in tenth grade high school English textbooks. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 15(2), 41–73.

Collins, P. (2006). Grammar in TEFL: A critique of Indonesian high school textbooks. TEFLIN Journal, 17(1), 1–10.

Comrie, B. (2000). Tense. Cambridge University Press.

Davies, M. (2008). The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): 560 million words, 1990-present. https://corpus.byu.edu/coca/.

Dongkwang, S., & Chon, Y. V. (2011). A corpus-based analysis of curriculum-based elementary and secondary English textbooks. Multimedia- Assisted Language Learning, 14(1), 149–175.

Gilmore, A. (2004). A comparison of textbook and authentic interactions. ELT Journal, 58(4), 363–374.

Handayani, N., Isyam, A., & Fitrawati. (2013). Teaching-learning processes: Simple past tense and simple future tense and their perception. Journal of English Language Teaching, 1(2), 291–300.

Hsieh, M., Wang, F., & Lee, S. (2011). A corpus-based analysis comparing vocabulary input from storybooks and textbooks. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 25–33.

Khadim, N. O. A. R. (2015). On teaching future time to EFL learners: Problems and solutions. Journal of Education College for Women, 9(7), 7–23.

Khijasteh, L., & Kafipour, R. (2012). Are modal auxiliaries in Malaysian English language textbooks in line with their usage in real language? English Language Teaching, 5(2), 68–77.

Kim, H. (2019). The perception of teachers and learners towards an exploratory corpus-based grammar instruction in a Korean EFL primary school context. The Korea Association of Primary English Education, 25(1), 123–152. https://doi.org/10.25231/pee.2019.25.1.123

Kızıl, A. Ş., & Savran, Z. (2018). The integration of corpus into EFL speaking instruction:A study of learner perceptions. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 5(2), 376–389.

Lai, S.-L. (2015). EFL students’ perceptions of corpus-tools as writing references. Critical CALL – Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference, Padova, Italy, 336–341. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2015.000355

Leech, G., Hundt, M., Mair, C., & Smith, N. (2009). Change in Contemporary English: A grammatical study. Cambridge University Press.

Leńko-Szymańska, A. (2015). A teacher-training course on the use of corpora in language education: Perspectives of the students. In A. Turula, B. Mikołajewska, & D. Stanulewicz (Eds.), Insights into Technology Enhanced Language Pedagogy. Peter Lang.

Lin, M. H. (2016). Effects of corpus-aided language learning in the EFL grammar classroom: A case study of students’ learning attitudes and teachers’ perceptions in Taiwan. TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 871–893. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.250

Mayangsari, L., Nurkamto, J., & Supriyadi, S. (2018). Cultural content: An analysis of EFL textbook in Indonesia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), 8(11), 192–199. https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.11.2018.p8325

McCarthy, M., McCarten, J., & Sandiford, H. (2014). Touchstone. Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/gb/cambridgeenglish/catalog/adult-courses/touchstone/methodology-and-research

McEnery, T., & Hardie, A. (2012). Corpus linguistics. Cambridge University Press.

McEnery, T., & Wilson, A. (2001). Corpus linguistics. Edinburgh University Press.

McEnery, T., & Xiao, R. (2013). What corpora can offer in language teaching and learning. In Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203836507.ch22

Mindt, D. (1996). A corpus-based empirical grammar of English modal verbs. Papers from the Sixteenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 16), 16, 133–141.

Nordberg, C., & Nordlund, M. (2018). A corpus-based study of lexis in L2 English textbooks. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(3), 463. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0903.03

Nordberg, T. (2010). Modality as portrayed in Finish upper secondary school EFL textbooks: A corpus-based approach. University of Helsinki.

Ojanen, E. (2008). Authenticity of future time reference in textbook English: A corpus study. University of Tampere.

Oktavianti, I. N. (2019). Verba bantu modal bahasa Inggris: Karakteristik, pemakaian dan perubahan. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Oktavianti, I. N., Prayogi, I., Amal, M. A., & Pertiwi, R. S. (2020). An analysis of conversations in curriculum-based EFL textbooks for Senior high school in Indonesia and the comparison with corpus-based English textbooks. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(9), 4151–4162. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080941

Orlando, M. E. (2009). The frequency and collocation of modal verbs in English as a second language textbooks as compared to Standard English corpora. University of Québec.

Phoocharoensil, S. (2017). Corpus-based exploration of linking adverbials of result: Discovering what ELT writing coursebooks lack. 3L The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 23(1), 150–167. https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2017-2301-11

Pounds, R. (2011). Analysis of approaches to the present perfect tense in English textbooks published in Japan and in English-speaking countries [Ph.D. Thesis]. Ball State University.

Radić-Bojanić, B. B., & Topalov, J. (2016). Textbooks in the EFL classroom: Defining assessing and analyzing. Collection of Papers of the Faculty of Philosophy, XLVI(3), 137–153.

Rahmah, A., Kasim, U., & Fitriani, S. S. (2018). Cultural values analysis in English textbook “Bahasa Inggris.” English Education Journal, 9(4), 614–631.

Römer, U. (2004). A corpus-driven approach to modal auxiliaries and their didactics. In J. Sinclair (Ed.), How to Use Corpora in Language Teaching. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Römer, U. (2005). Progressives, patterns. pedagogy: A corpus-driven approach to English progressive forms, functions, contexts, and didactics. J. Benjamins Pub. Co.

Scheibman, J. (2001). Local patterns of subjectivity in person and verb type in American English conversation. In Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure (pp. 61–89). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Setiaji, S. (2016). An authenticity analysis of conversational texts in the Indonesian EFL textbooks [Thesis]. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

Siegel, A. (2014). What should we talk about? The authenticity of textbook topics. ELT Journal, 68(4), 363–375. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccu012

Stockton, R. J. (2018). Reculturing language in Indonesian English language teaching. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching, 13(2), 131–153.

Tomlinson, B. (1998). Materials development in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Widdowson, H. G. (1998). Context, community and authentic language. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 705–716.

Widodo, H. P. (2018). A critical micro-semiotic analysis of values depicted in the Indonesian Ministry of National Education-endorsed secondary school English textbook. In H. P. Widodo, M. R. Perfecto, L. Van Canh, & A. Buripakdi (Eds.), Situating Moral and Cultural Values in ELT Materials (Vol. 9, pp. 131–152). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63677-1_8

Zambrana, M. (2017). Corpus analysis of phraseology in an A1 level of German as a foreign language. Quaderns de Filologia: Estudies Linguistics, 22, 13–22.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/ijefl.v5i2.250


  • There are currently no refbacks.

IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics); Email: indonesianefl@gmail.com; Web: www.indonesian-efl-journal.org

Creative Commons License
IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics) by http://indonesian-efl-journal.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed and Abstracted BY:


  Hasil gambar untuk gambar moraref