Focus on Form and Focus on Forms in Implicit Grammar Teaching Strategy

Rizki Indra Guci, Dewi Rochsantiningsih, Sumardi Sumardi

Abstract


Grammar instruction in foreign language teaching has been identified by most studies as one aspect that plays an important role in promoting the learning process of reading, writing, speaking and understanding a foreign language. Consequently, secondary and foreign language teaching of grammar is seen as a topic of debate. So academics and teachers seem to have been willing to work out the proper way of teaching grammar. This condition contributes to a likely cause of uncertainty for teachers and students, and then brings researchers to a rigorous theoretical discussion on the question of how grammar should be presented: explicitly or implicitly. The purpose of the present case study was to gather information into the implementation of the implicit grammar teaching strategy enrolled in senior high school. To this extent, interview sessions and observation were used to obtain all the data required for the study. The results, in a broad sense, confirmed that the teacher showed positive views on the implementation of the implicit grammar teaching strategy. However, classroom practices were quite different from the findings of previous related research consistent with the supremacy of either Focus on Form or Focus on Forms in the delivery of lesson materials. As an implication, this study encouraged Indonesian English teachers to start considering the implementation of implicit grammar teaching strategy so that students could be directed to the language acquisition cycle instead of the language learning.


Keywords


foreign language teaching, grammar instruction, implicit teaching

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education, Ed. 8, United States of America: Wadworth.

Başöz, T. (2014). Through the eyes of prospective teachers of English: Explicit or implicit grammar instruction? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158, 377–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.103

Burgess, J., & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: Explicit or implicit? System, 30(4), 433-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00048-9

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston, MA: Heinel & Heinel.

Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206–257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. SSLA, 27, 141–172. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050096

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2015). The importance of focus on form in communicative language teaching. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.32601/ejal.460611

Ellis, R. (2016). Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 405–428. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1362168816628627

Farshi, S. S., & Baghbani, S. D. (2015). The effects of implicit and explicit focus on form on oral accuracy of EFL learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(2), 292-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0502.08

Gass, S. (2012). Incidental vocabulary learning. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, 1519–1519. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_2213

Gheisari, N., & Yousofi, N. (2016). Iranian pre-university student’s retention of collocations: Implicit exposure or explicit instruction. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1184826

Graus, J., & Coppen, P. A. (2016). Student teacher beliefs on grammar instruction. Language Teaching Research, 20(5), 571–599. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815603237

Griffiths, C. (2003). Patterns of language learning strategy use. System, 31(3), 367–383. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(03)00048-4

Housen, A., & Pierrard, M. (2005). Investigating instructed second language acquisition. In A. Housen & M. Pierrard (Eds.), Investigations in instructed second language acquisition (pp. 1–30). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hunt, A., & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17, 23–59.

Krashen, S., & Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach. Hayward, CA: Alemany.

Krashen, S. D. (1994). The input hypothesis and its rivals. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 45–78). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Krashen, S. D., & Terrell, T. D. (1998). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. London: Prentice-Hall International.

Lichtman, K. (2013). Developmental comparisons of implicit and explicit language learning. Language Acquisition, 20(2), 93–108. https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2013.766740

Ling, Z. (2015). Explicit grammar and implicit grammar teaching for English major students in university. Sino-US English Teaching, 12(8), 556–560. https://doi.org/10.17265/1539-8072/2015.08.002

Long, M. H. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In K. DeBot, R. Ginsberg, & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in crosscultural perspective (pp. 39–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Long, M. H. (1998). Focus on form in task-based language teaching. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in ESL, 16(2), 35–49.

Long, M. H. (2016). In defense of tasks and TBLT: Nonisssues and real issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 5–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190515000057

McMillan, James H. (2008). Educational Research: Fundamental for the Consumer. Fifth Edition. United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2020). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Murtisari, E. T., Hastuti, G., & Arsari, R. W. (2019). EFL students’ perception of grammar teaching: Isolated or integrated in skill courses? The Asian EFL Journal, 26(6.1), 210.

Nagy, W. E., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M. G. McKeown & M. E. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 19–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nazari, N. (2013). The effect of implicit and explicit grammar instruction on learners’ achievements in receptive and productive modes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 156-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.051

Poole, A. (2005). Focus on form instruction: Foundations, applications, and criticisms, The Reading Matrix, 5(1), 47–56.

Schmitt, N., & Zimmerman, C. B. (2002). Derivative word forms: What do learners know? TESOL Quarterly, 36, 145–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588328

Scott, V. M. (1989). An empirical study of explicit vs implicit teaching strategies in foreign language instruction. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 73(1), 110.

Talley, P. C., & Hui-Ling, T. (2014). Implicit and explicit teaching of English speaking in the EFL classroom. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(6), 38-45.

Tammenga-Helmantel, M., Arends, E., & Canrinus, E. T. (2014). The effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammatical instruction in second language classrooms. System, 45(1), 198–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.06.003

Taylor, D. B., Mraz, M., Nichols, W. D., Rickelman, R. J., & Wood, K. D. (2009). Using explicit instruction to promote vocabulary learning for struggling readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25(2–3), 205–220. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560802683663

Uysal, N. D., & Yavuz, F. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards grammar teaching, 191, 1828–1832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.353

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. United States of America: Sage Publications.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/ijefl.v6i1.347

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics); Email: indonesianefl@gmail.com; Web: www.indonesian-efl-journal.org

Creative Commons License
IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics) by http://indonesian-efl-journal.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed and Abstracted BY:

 

  Hasil gambar untuk gambar moraref