Learner Autonomy: Gender-Based Perception Among EFL Indonesian Students

Moch. Said Mardjuki


Learner autonomy is believed to be the contributing factor toward the students’ successful learning process. However, its implementation in Indonesia still faces some challenges regarding students’ readiness and competencies in realizing such concept. Thus, this study is aimed to investigate gender-based perceptions and attitudes among EFL Indonesian students on learner autonomy. Qualitative design in which four out of twenty respondents were selected purposively under the rationale that they demonstrated positive evidences reflected to the preliminary questionnaire results. Using semi-structured interview, the findings indicated no gender-based discrepancy in terms of learning experiences and challenges. Although individual tasks were preferred by both groups, problem-solving strategies differ in which females employed internal strategies (rescheduling and self-commitment), while males employed external strategies (learning sources and collaborative works). In conclusion, each of the autonomous learners has personal preference to deal with the encountered challenges. Further researches, thus, need to investigate the actual transparencies of their learning behavior through observation.


learner autonomy, learning process, gender, perceptions, attitudes

Full Text:



Abdel Razeq, A. A. (2014). University EFL Learners’ Perceptions of Their Autonomous Learning Responsibilities and Abilities. RELC Journal, 45(3), 321–336. http://doi.org/10.1177/0033688214547035.

Balcikanli, C. (2008). Fostering Learner Autonomy in EFL Classrooms. Kastamonu Education Journal, 16(1), 277–284.

Benson, P. (1997) The multiple meanings of autonomy: responsibility, ability and right, in: L. Dickinson (Ed.) Autonomy 2000: the development of learning independence in language learning (Bangkok, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Thonburi).

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. Harlow: Longman.

Benson, P. (2013). Teaching and researching: Autonomy in language learning. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.

Benson, P. (2016). Language learner autonomy: exploring teachers’ perspectives on theory and practices. In: R. Barnard, & J. Li (Eds.), Language learner autonomy: Teachers’ beliefs and practices in Asian contexts (pp. 114–133). Phnom Penh: IDP Education.

Chan, V. (2010). Teaching in Higher Education Readiness for Learner Autonomy : What do our learners tell us ? Readiness for Learner Autonomy : what do our learners tell us ? Teaching in Higher Education, 6(December 2012), 37–41. http://doi.org/10.1080/1356251012007804.

Creswell, John W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Boston: Pearson.

Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Egel, I. (2009). Learner autonomy in the language classroom: from teacher dependency to learner independency. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 1: 2023–26.

Hamied, F. A. (2017). Research Method: A Guide for First-Time Researchers (2nd edition). Bandung: UPI PRESS.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching. London: Yale University Press.

Lengkanawati, N. S. (2017). Learner autonomy in the indonesian efl settings. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 222–231.

Lewis, M. and Reinders, H. (2008). Using students-centered methods with teacher-centered students. Ontario: Pippin Publishing.

Little, D. (1996). The politics of learner autonomy. Learning Learning, 2(4):7-10.

Macaro, E. (2008). The shifting dimensions of language learner autonomy. In Learner and teacher autonomy: concepts, realities, and responses (pp. 47–62). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/aals.1.07mac.

Miles, Mathew B. And Huberman, A. Michael. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. USA: Sage Publications.

Pennycook, A. (1997) Cultural alternatives and autonomy, in: P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning (Harlow, Longman).

Ranosa-Madrunio, M., Tarrayo, V.N., Tupas, R., & Valdez, P.N. (2016). Learner autonomy: English language teachers’ beliefs and practices in the Philippines. In: R. Barnard, & J. Li (Eds.), Language learner autonomy: Teachers’ beliefs and practices in Asian contexts (pp. 114–133). Phnom Penh: IDP Education.

Sugiyono. (2013). Metode penelitian pendidikan: Pendekatan kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Varol, B., & Yilmaz, S. (2010). Similarities and differences between female and male learners: inside and outside class autonomous language learning activities. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 273–274.

Yuliani, Y., & Lengkanawati, N. S. (2017). Project-based Learning in Promoting Learner Autonomy. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 285–293

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/ijefll.v3i1.46


  • There are currently no refbacks.

IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics); Email: indonesianefl@gmail.com; Web: www.indonesian-efl-journal.org

Creative Commons License
IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics) by http://indonesian-efl-journal.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed and Abstracted BY:


  Hasil gambar untuk gambar moraref