A Corpus-Based Analysis of Word ‘Ghost’ in the Collection of Kenyah Stories

  • Laily Syarifah Universitas Mulawarman
  • Febiyani Febiyani Universitas Mulawarman
  • Novira Anjani Universitas Mulawarman
  • Siti Munawarah Universitas Mulawarman
  • Jairatunnisyah Jaidun Putri Universitas Mulawarman
  • Yuni Utami Asih Universitas Mulawarman
  • Ventje Jany Kalukar Universitas Mulawarman
Keywords: corpus linguistics, ghost, personification


To illustrate the concept of ghosts, this research aimed to explain how they were described in Òma Lóngh and Lebu’ Kulit language, the collection of Dayak Kenyah short stories. This research employed a descriptive qualitative method based on figurative language personification theory. Data analysis is conducted using corpus analysis with the  AntConc application. This research concluded that there are four categories that employ personification in relation to the term 'ghost' namely the ghosts act like human, the ghosts being described as dying like humans, ghosts can transform into other forms and ghosts being described as animals. The use of personification in these stories allows readers to relate to and believe in the ghost, enhancing the drama and suspense of the story. The ghosts in this research were only described using personification. Further research might investigate ghosts through different theories to see how their appearance can contribute to certain meanings in the stories.


Abrams, M. H. (1999). A Glossary of Literary Terms.
Anderson, K. E. (2010). (Article begins on next page). 30(8), 1789–1796. https://doi.org/10.7282/T35T3HSK
Ardhani, R. A., & Indriani, L. (2021). Corpus Linguistic Research: Analyzing Adverb Of Place In “The Hobbit” Novel BY J.R.R. English Journal of Indragiri (EJI) Studies in Education, Literature, and Linguistics, 5(2), 273. http://www.nber.org/papers/w16019
Basuki, S. (2006). Metode Penelitian. Wedatama Widya Sastra.
Berta, M. O., & Swarniti, N. W. (2020). Improving the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Through Word Square Game At the Eighth Grade of Smp Dwijendra Denpasar in the Academic Year 2019/2020. Widyasrama, 30(2), 18–25.
Blanco, M., & Peeren, E. (2013). The Spectralities Reader : Ghosts and Haunting in Contemporary Cultural Theory. London: Bloomsbury.
Claudia, V. S., Suwandi, S., & ... (2021). Humanical Values and Enviromental Values in the Folklore At the Region Karangjati District, Ngawi Regency: Literary Ecocritic …. English Language and …, 4(2), 404–415. https://jurnal.unimus.ac.id/index.php/ELLIC/article/view/7421%0Ahttps://jurnal.unimus.ac.id/index.php/ELLIC/article/viewFile/7421/5500
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Mixed Methods Procedures. In Research Defign: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed M ethods Approaches.
Dancygier, B. and E. S. (2014). Barbara, Sweetser - 2014 - Figurative Language. www.cambridge.org
Duile, T. (2020). Kuntilanak Ghost Narratives and Malay Modernity in Pontianak, Indonesia. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde, 176(2–3), 279–303. https://doi.org/10.1163/22134379-17601001
Dwi Kurniasih, & Krismonita, F. Y. (2023). The fireball ghosts, in three major countries of Southeast Asia culture. SHAHIH: Journal of Islamicate Multidisciplinary, 8(1), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.22515/shahih.v8i1.5971
Endraswara, S. (2013). Folklor nusantara: hakikat, bentuk dan fungsi. Folklor Nusantara: Hakikat, Bentuk Dan Fungsi, 1–298. http://staff.uny.ac.id/sites/default/files/penelitian/dr-suwardi-mhum/folklor-nusantaradamicetak.pdf
Ghozali, A. S., & Christomy, T. (2023). The Narrative Of Excommunication And Presence Of The Ghost Character In The Novel Haniyah Dan Ala Di Rumah Teteruga By Erni Aladjai. 7(1).
Hutauruk, B. S. (2019). The Use of Figurative Languages on the Students’ Poetry Semester V at FKIP Universitas HKBP Nommensen. Journal of English Language and Culture, 9(2), 128–137. https://doi.org/10.30813/jelc.v9i2.1690
Juliarta, I. M., & Wirawan, I. G. N. (2021). The Figurative Language in David Campbell’s Poem “Night Sowing” and Their Translation into “Menyemai di Malam Hari.” Al-Lisan, 6(2), 197–208. https://doi.org/10.30603/al.v7i2.2117
Kennedy, X. ., & Gioia, D. (1995). An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama Sixth Edition. Harper Collins College Publishers.
Khairunnisa, A., & Wardhaningsih, M. (2020). A Book of Indonesian Ghosts. StoryTale Studios.
Lagerwey, J. (2004). Religion and Chinese Society: Ancient and Medieval China. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1z7kkfn
Manggala, S. A. (2023). The Human Beings’ Submissiveness to Supernatural Beings in Folktales from Central Sulawesi. RETORIKA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa, 9(2), 225–231. https://doi.org/10.55637/jr.9.2.6706.225-231
Melion, W. S., & Ramakers, B. (n.d.). PERSONIFICATION: Embodying Meaning and Emotion.
Michalopoulos, S., & Meng Xue, M. (2021). FOLKLORE. 136(4), 1993–2046. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjab003.Advance
Nainggolan, F., Siahaan, D. A., Sinurat, B., & Herman, H. (2021). An analysis of Figurative Language on Joe Biden’s Victory Speech. International Journal on Integrated Education, 4(3), 364–375. https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1514
Nur, A., Abd, I., & Zainal, Z. I. (2022). Human and Ghost Attachment In Hanna Alkaf ’s The Girl and The Ghost. August.
Oliver, M. (1995). A poetry handbook. In Choice Reviews Online (Vol. 32, Issue 06). https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.32-3181
Perdana Prasetya, E., Dewi Ekawati, A., Sapta Nugraha, D., Marzuq, A., & Saputri Darlis, T. (2020). Corpus Linguistics, Language Corpora and Language Teaching. English Journal, 14(2), 75. https://doi.org/10.32832/english.v14i2.3845
Qayyum, N., & Fatima, S. (2023). Gender Representation in A Thousand Splendid Suns : A Corpus- Based Stylistic Analysis. Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences, 2(1), 20–36.
Richardson, T. C. (2018). Angel Intuition: A Psychic’s Guide to the Language of Angels. In Voluntary Sector in Transition. Llewellyn Publications. https://doi.org/10.56687/9781847427243-001
Saddhono, K., Rohmadi, M., Setiawan, B., Suhita, R., Rakhmawati, A., Hastuti, S., & Islahuddin, I. (2023). Corpus Linguistics Use in Vocabulary Teaching Principle and Technique Application: A Study of Indonesian Language for Foreign Speakers. International Journal of Society, Culture and Language, 11(1), 231–245. https://doi.org/10.22034/ijscl.2022.1971972.2823
How to Cite
Syarifah, L., Febiyani, F., Anjani, N., Munawarah, S., Putri, J., Asih, Y., & Kalukar, V. (2024). A Corpus-Based Analysis of Word ‘Ghost’ in the Collection of Kenyah Stories. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 9(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.21462/ijefl.v9i1.741