Exploring the Influence of Beliefs of Instructors on Adoption of Technology in Teaching

Zahir Hasan

Abstract


The implementation of Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) due to Covid-19 pandemic resulted in classes being taught online.  This research study examines computer-mediated instruction as it is influenced by beliefs of English-language instructors, and how those instructors make sense of their beliefs regarding computer-mediated online instruction tools.  An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) research design was used.  English-language instructors employed full-time in universities in Tokyo participated in this study.  It appeared that each instructor’s beliefs interacted in a complex manner to technology which impacted instructors’ teaching practices related to the use of computer-mediated instruction.  It revealed a multifaceted relationship between what instructors’ think and what they do in class in relation to computer-mediated tasks.  Findings of this study suggest that English language instructors are navigating competently, yet cautiously in the digital age.  This study suggests technology integration into the English language curriculum will require a greater collaborative effort by relevant stakeholders in recognizing instructors’ beliefs as vital to technology acceptance

Keywords


asynchronous teaching, Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT), Learning Management System (LMS), self-efficacy, synchronous teaching

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrami, P. C., Poulsen, C., & Chambers, B. (2004). Teacher motivation to implement an educational innovation: Factors differentiating users and non-users of cooperative learning. Educational Psychology, 24(2), 201–216.

Allen, Q. L. (2008). The impact of teachers' beliefs on implementing curricular changes. In J. Siskin (Ed.), From thought to action: Exploring beliefs and outcomes in the foreign language program. (pp. 30–48). Thomson Higher Education.

Aoki, K. (2005). Japanese higher education institutions in the 21st century: The challenge of globalization and internationalization. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. Retrievedfrom http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/discussionpapers/

Aoki, K. (2010). The use of ICT and e-learning in higher education in Japan. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 66, 868–872.

Atmojo, E., & Nugroho, A. (2020). EFL Classes Must Go Online! Teaching Activities and Challenges during COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia. Register Journal, 13(1), 49-76.

Bachnik, J. (Ed.). (2003). Roadblocks on the information highway: The IT revolution in Japanese education. Lexington Books.

Bai, H., & Ertmer, P. (2008). Teacher educators' beliefs and technology uses as predictors of preservice teachers' beliefs and technology attitudes. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(1), 93–112.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.

Bandura, Albert. (1988). Organisational Applications of Social Cognitive Theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13(2), 275-302.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26

Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38, 9–44.

Bauer, J., & Kenton, J. (2005). Toward technology integration in the schools: Why it isn't happening. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 519–546.

Becker, H. J. (2000a). Findings from the teaching, learning, and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(51).

Becker, H. J. (2000b). Who's wired and who's not: Children's access to and use of computer technology. The Future of Children, 10(2), 44–75.

Blake, D., & Christian, H. (2020). OU professors adjust to online teaching after COVID-19 suspends in-person classes. University Wire, p. University Wire, Mar 25, 2020.

Blumenthal, E., Geller, J., & Gould, J. (2020). Administration responds to COVID-19, classes go online. University Wire, p. University Wire, Mar 17, 2020.

Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81–109.

Breen, M. P. (1991). Understanding the language teacher. In R. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/Second Language Pedagogy Research (pp. 213–33). Multilingual Matters.

Breen, M. P., Hird, B., Milton, M., Oliver, R., & Thwaite, A. (2001). Making sense of language teaching: Teachers' principles and classroom practices. Applied Linguistics, 22(4), 470–501.

Brocki, J. M., & Wearden, A. J. (2006). A critical evaluation of the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in health psychology. Psychology & Health, 21(1), 87–108.

Chen, C. (2008). Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration? Journal of Educational Research, 102(1), 65–75.

Chen, J. (2011). A critical reflection on integrating informational technology into EFL curriculum: An EFL teacher's inquiry. Online Submission, 464–470.

Corry, M., & Stella, J. (2018). Teacher self-efficacy in online education: A review of the literature. Research in Learning Technology, 26.

Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). State of the profession: Study measures status of professional development. Journal of Staff Development, 30(2), 42–44.

Dexter, S. L., Anderson, R. E., & Becker, H. J. (1999). Teachers’ views of computers as catalysts for changes in their teaching practice. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 31(3), 221–239.

Dolighan, T., & Owen, M. (2021). Teacher efficacy for online teaching during the COVID-19pandemic. BrockEducation, 30(1)

Dudeney, G., & Hockly, N. (2007). How to teach English with technology. Pearson Education Limited.

Dwyer, D., Ringstaff, C., & Sandholtz, J. (1991). Changes in teachers' beliefs and practices in technology- rich classrooms. Educational Leadership, 48(8), 45.

Erdem-Aydin, İ. (2021). Investigation of higher education instructors’ perspectives towards emergency remote teaching. Educational Media International, 58(1), 78–98.

Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.

Ertmer, P. A., Gopalakrishnan, S., & Ross, E. M. (2001). Technology- using teachers: Comparing perceptions of exemplary technology use to best practice [Electronic version]. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(5).

Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, (2), 423–435.

Fang, Z. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research, 38(1), 47–65.

Favale, T., Soro, F., Trevisan, M., Drago, I., & Mellia, M. (2020). Campus traffic and e-Learning during COVID-19 pandemic. Computer Networks,176, 20 July 2020, Vol.176.

Foley, L. S. (2011). Exploring K– 3 teachers' implementation of comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) using expectancy- value theory. Literacy Research and Instruction, 50(3), 195–215.

Franciosi, S. J. (2016). Acceptability of RPG simulators for foreign language training in Japanese higher education. Simulation & Gaming, 47(1), 31–50.

Gallini, J. K., & Barron, D. (2002). Participants' perceptions of web- infused environments: A survey of teaching beliefs, learning approaches, and communication. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(2), 139–56.

Garthwait, A., & Weller, H. G. (2005). A year in the life: Two seventh grade teachers implement one-to- one computing. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(4), 361–377.

Gong, Y., Huang, J., & Farh, L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 765–778.

Gorder, L. M. (2008). A study of teacher perceptions of instructional technology integration in the classroom. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 50(2), 63–76.

Gu, S., Yang, X., & Li, W. (2021). Relationships Among Online Teaching Design, Experience, and Perception of College Teachers During the Pandemic. In Blended Learning: Re-thinking and Re-defining the Learning Process (pp. 351–366). Springer International Publishing.

Harrison, J., & Lakin, J. (2018). Mainstream Teachers' Implicit Beliefs about English Language Learners: An Implicit Association Test Study of Teacher Beliefs. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 17(2), 85-102.

Hawk, H. (2020). Online classes during COVID-19 affect teachers, students. University Wire, University Wire, Apr 10, 2020.

Henry, J. J., & Clements, D. H. (1999). Challenges for teachers attempting to integrate a mathematics innovation. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 31(3), 240–260.

Hu, G. (2002). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: The case of communicative language teaching in china. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 15(2), 93–105.

Hughes, A., Galbraith, D., & White, D. (2011). Perceived competence: A common core for self-efficacy and self-concept. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 278–289.

Judson, E. (2006). How teachers integrate technology and their beliefs about learning: Is there a connection? Journal of Technology & Teacher Education, 14(3), 581–597.

Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implication of research on teacher belief. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 65–90.

Karaman, C., Ökten, C., & Tochon, F. V. (2012). Learning the deep approach: Language teachers' voices. Porta Linguarum, 18, 79–95.

Koçoğlu, Z. (2009). Exploring the technological pedagogical content knowledge of pre-service teachers in language education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2734–2737.

Lam, Y. (2000). Technophilia vs. technophobia: A preliminary look at why second-language teachers do or do not use technology in their classrooms. Canadian Modern Language Review, 56(3), 391–422.

Latchem, C., Jung, I., Aoki, K., & Ozkul, A. E. (2008). The tortoise and the hare enigma in e-transformation in Japanese and Korean higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(4), 610–630.

Lee, J. C., Zhang, Z., & Yin, H. (2011). A multilevel analysis of the impact of a professional learning community, faculty trust in colleagues and collective efficacy on teacher commitment to students. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 27(5), 820–830.

Levin, T., & Wadmany, R. (2006). Teachers' beliefs and practices in technology-based classrooms: A developmental view. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(2), 157–181.

Lei, S. I., & So, A. S. I. (2021). Online Teaching and Learning Experiences During the COVID-19 Pandemic - A Comparison of Teacher and Student Perceptions. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 33(3), 148–162.

Li, G., & Protacio, M. S. (2010). Best practices in professional development for teachers of ELLs. In G. Li and P. Edwards (Eds.), Best practices in ELL instruction. Guilford Press.

Liu, H., Wang, L., & Koehler, M. (2019). Exploring the intention‐behavior gap in the technology acceptance model: A mixed‐methods study in the context of foreign‐language teaching in China. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(5), 2536-2556.

Liu, S. (2011). Factors related to pedagogical beliefs of teachers and technology integration. Computers & Education, (4), 1012–1022.

Marcinkiewicz, H. R. (1994). Computers and teachers: Factors influencing computer use in the classroom. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 26(2), 220–37.

Martin, F., Ritzhaupt, A., Kumar, S., & Budhrani, K. (2019). Award-winning faculty online teaching practices: Course design, assessment and evaluation, and facilitation. The Internet and Higher Education, 42, 34-43.

Met, M. (2006). Realizing our vision: Teachers at the core. 2005–2015: Realizing our vision of language for all (pp. 55–74). Pearson Education, Inc.

Mitchem, K., Wells, D. L., & Wells, J. G. (2003). Effective integration of instructional technologies (IT): Evaluating professional development and instructional change. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(3), 399–416.

Moorhouse, B. L. (2020). Adaptations to a face-to-face initial teacher education course ‘forced’ online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, Journal of Education for Teaching, Apr 15, 2020.

Munby, H. (1986). Metaphor in the thinking of teachers: An exploratory study. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 18(2), 197–209.

Nartiningrum, N., & Nugroho, A. (2021). English Teachers’ Perspectives on Challenges, Suggestions, and Materials of Online Teaching amidst the Global Pandemic. IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education), 1(1), 101–119.

Nelson, Michael J, Voithofer, Rick, & Cheng, Sheng-Lun. (2019). Mediating factors that influence the technology integration practices of teacher educators. Computers and Education, 128, 330-344.

Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 19(4), 317–328.

Niederhauser, D. S., & Stoddart, T. (2001). Teachers' instructional perspectives and use of educational software. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(1), 15–31.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332.

Parks, S., Huot, D., Hamers, J., & H.-Lemonnier, F. (2003). Crossing boundaries: Multimedia technology and pedagogical innovation in a high school class. Language, Learning & Technology, 7(1), 28.

Peacock, M. (2001). Pre- service ESL teachers' beliefs about second language learning: A longitudinal study. System, 29(2), 177–95.

Pringle, J., Drummond, J., McLafferty, E., & Hendry, C. (2011). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: A discussion and critique. Nurse Researcher, 18(3), 20.

Ravitz, J. L., Becker, H. J., & Wong, Y. (2000). Constructivist- compatible beliefs and practices among U.S. teachers. teaching, learning, and computing: 1998 national survey report #4.

Reid, K., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2005). Exploring lived experience. The Psychologist, 18(1), 20–23.

Richards, J. C. (1994). In Lockhart C. (Ed.), Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Cambridge University Press.

Richard Watson Todd. (2020). Teachers’ Perceptions of the Shift from the Classroom to Online Teaching. International Journal of TESOL Studies, 2(2), 4–16.

Rubin, H. J. (2012). In Rubin I. S. (Ed.), Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.

Sadeghi, B., Rahmany, R., & Doosti, E. (2014). L2 teachers' reasons and perceptions for using or not using computer mediated communication tools in their classroom. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 5(3), 663–673.

Sakamoto, T. (2002). E-learning and educational innovation in higher education in Japan. Educational Media International, 39, 9–16.

Schlesselman, Lauren S, M.A.Ed Psych, PharmD. (2020). Perspective from a teaching and learning center during emergency remote teaching. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(8), 1042-1044.

Shi, M., & Bichelmeyer, B. (2007). Teachers' experiences with computers: A comparative study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 10(2).

Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2003). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In J. A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to methods. Sage Publications.

Smith, J. A., Flowers, P. & Larkin, M. (2013). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. Sage Publications.

Son, B. K. ((2019). Integrated e-Learning paradigm in the twenty-first century: Management Education. In D. Sampson, J. Spector, D. Ifenthaler, P. Isaías, & S. Sergis (Eds.), Learning Technologies for Transforming Large-Scale Teaching, Learning, and Assessment (1st ed. 2019. ed.). Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer.

Stroozas, S. (2020). UWL moves classes online for the rest of the semester due to COVID-19. University Wire, p. University Wire, Mar 16, 2020.

Surry, D. W., & Land, S. M. (2000). Strategies for motivating higher education faculty to use technology. Innovations in Education and Training International, 37(2), 145–53.

Telles-Langdon, D. M. (2020). Transitioning University Courses Online in Response to COVID-19. Journal of Teaching and Learning,14(1), Journal of Teaching and Learning, 01 May 2020, Vol.14(1).

Teo, T. (2009). Examining the relationship between student teachers' self- efficacy beliefs and their intended uses of technology for teaching: A structural equation modelling approach. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4), 7–15.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1137–1148.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2011). Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 277–293.

Todd, R.W. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions of the shift from the classroom to online teaching. International Journal of TESOL Studies, 2 (2), 4-16.

Uchida, H. (2004). Information technology-driven education in Japan: Problems and solutions. Educational Technology Research & Development, 52(3), 91–111.

Ucok-Sayrak, O., & Brazelton, N. (2021). Regarding the question of presence in online education: A performative pedagogical perspective. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 1–29.

Vannatta, R. A., & Fordham, N. (2004). Teacher dispositions as predictors of classroom technology use. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(3), 253–271.

Williams, M. (1997). In Burden R. L. (Ed.), Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. University Press.

Wingo, N., Ivankova, N., & Moss, J. (2017). Faculty Perceptions about Teaching Online: Exploring the Literature Using the Technology Acceptance Model as an Organizing Framework. Online Learning, 21(1), 15-35.

Woods, D. (1995). Teacher cognition in language teaching: Beliefs, decision-making and classroom practice. Cambridge University Press.

Wozney, L., Venkatesh, V., & Abrami, P. C. (2006). Implementing computer technologies: Teachers' perceptions and practices. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(1), 173.

Yang, C. Q. (2008). A researcher study on teacher professional development in technology-rich educational environment. Teacher Professional Development Forum.

Yasuson, G. M., & Howell, A. J. (2005). Attitude toward instructional technology following required versus optional WebCT usage. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 643.

Yükselir, C. (2016). English foreign language (EFL) instructors’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the integration of internet-assisted language teaching (IALT) into EFL instruction. Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, 9(1), 23–30.

Zhao, Y., Pugh, K., Sheldon, S., & Byers, J. (2002). Conditions for classroom technology innovations. Teachers College Record, 104(3), 482–515.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/ijefl.v6i2.381

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics); Email: indonesianefl@gmail.com; Web: www.indonesian-efl-journal.org

Creative Commons License
IJEFL (Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics) by http://indonesian-efl-journal.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed and Abstracted BY:

 

  Hasil gambar untuk gambar moraref