School-related Variables Support toward the Utilization of Language Learning Strategies in a Private Bilingual High School

  • Anis Etikasari Kesatuan Bangsa School, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Ikmi Nur Oktavianti Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Badli Esham Ahmad Universiti Teknologi MARA
Keywords: language learning strategies, private bilingual school, school-related variables


Learning strategies play significant roles in successful English language learning, especially in the EFL context where inputs are limited. However, the use of learning strategies is highly affected by internal variables, e.g., motivation, learning style, and external variables, e.g., school-related variables. This study aims at exploring the roles of school-related variables in supporting the use of language learning strategies. This study was conducted in a private bilingual high school in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and five students who fulfilled the criteria were selected as the participants. The data were collected through semi-structured online interviews and recorded for more accessible analysis. The results of the interview were then analyzed using thematic analysis. The results of the study showed that school-related variables have significant and distinctive roles in supporting the use of language learning strategies. Each variable has its parts, e.g., the curriculum deals with language input, and the learning environment can enhance students’ motivation. Thus, teachers and school principals should be aware of their prominent roles and be able to design and create supportive school-related variables for their students.


Afrasteh, M. Y., Morovati, Z., & Cheragi, A. (2015). Identifying components of effective learning environments based on health students’ perception. Bimonthly of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 8(4), 261–268.
Agarwal, D. S., & Thakur, R. K. (2014). Influence of environments on the English learning of students in India. International Journal on Arts, Management and Humanities, 3(1), 5–8.
Ahmed, K. M. (2021). Analysis of the curriculum impact on English second language learners (ESL) from students’ and teachers’ perspectives [Ph.D. Dissertation]. British University.
Aja-Okorie, U., Odo, J., & Agwu, L. O. (2019). School related variables and students’ academic performance in secondary school in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 9(5), 8–15.
Akhtar, A. S., Shaker, M. A., & Kashif, N. U. (2019). A Study of School related Factors and their Influence on English Speaking Skill of Students. Journal of Educational Research, 22(3), 125–136.
Andrietti, V., & Su, X. (2019). Education curriculum and student achievement: Theory and evidence. Education Economics, 27(1), 4–19.
Araújo, L., & da Costa, P. D. (2013). The European survey on language competences: School internal and external factors in language learning. (Scientific and Policy Report Report EUR 26078 EN; p. 58). European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen.
Arshad, M., & Tayyab, M. (2019). Assessing the effects of school support facilities on academic achievement at Punjab Education Foundation Partner Schools. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 8(2), 214–222.
Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2017). Thematic analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(3), 297–298.
Cohen, A. D. (2021). Language Learner Strategies: A call for fine-tuned strategy categorization. In Z. Gavriilidou & L. Mitits (Eds.), Situating Language Learning Strategy Use (pp. 3–24). Multilingual Matters.
Etan, M. O., Kenneth, B. U., Angioha, P. U., Abang, T. A., & Akande, D. (2022). School-related variables as correlates of quality leaning outcome of senior secondary school students. Daengku: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Innovation, 2(2), 129–136.
Hardan, A. A. (2013). Language learning strategies: A General Overview. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 1712–1726.
Khamkhien, A. (2010). Factors affecting language learning strategy reported usage by Thai and Vietnamese EFL learners. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(1), 66–85.
Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition (1st ed). Pergamon.
Lauder, A. (2008). The status and function of English in Indonesia: A review of key factors. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 12(1), 9.
Lessard-Clouston, M. (1997). Language learning strategies: An overview for L2 teachers. The Internet TESL Journal, 3, 1–16.
Likitrattanaporn, W. (2018). A study of language learning strategies for practical use through the process of Cooperative Learning. International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning, 3(1), 35–44.
Liyanage, I., & Bartlett, B. J. (2012). Gender and language learning strategies: Looking beyond the categories. The Language Learning Journal, 40(2), 237–253.
Mbiro, L. D. S. (2021). Influence of home and school related factors in mitigating reading disabilities among class four learners in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya [Master Thesis]. Kenyatta University.
Mirhadizadeh, N. (2016). Internal and external factors in language learning. International Journal of Modern Language Teaching and Learning, 1(5), 188-196.
Munir, S., Emzir, E., & Rahmat, A. (2019). The effect of Teaching methods and learning styles on students’ English achievement (An experimental study at Junior High School 1 Pasangkayu). JETL (Journal Of Education, Teaching and Learning), 2(2), 233.
Mustafa, F. (2018). How much do high schools contribute to improving students’ English proficiency? Seeking alumni’s perception in Indonesia. ASIA TEFL, 20(2), 49–61.
Nguyen, L., Tan, T. K. P., Nguyen, T. H., & Zuyen, Z. (2021). The relationship between school-related factors and student development: An empirical study of Vietnamese students in the Industry 4.0. Management Science Letters, 1787–1796.
Ökmen, B., & Kılıç, A. (2016). The effect of language teaching methods on academic success in Turkey. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(10), 193–199.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Heinlee & Heinlee Publishers.
Oxford, R. L. (1994). Language learning strategies: An update. ERIC Digest, 1–4.
Oxford, R. L. (2017). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context (Seond edition). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Oxford, R. L., & Amerstorfer, C. M. (2018). Language learning strategies and individual learner characteristics: Situating strategy use in diverse contexts. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Psaltou-Joycey, A., Agathopoulou, E., Joycey, E., Sougari, A.-M., Kazamia, V., Petrogiannis, K., & Gavriilidou, Z. (2018). Promotion of language learning strategies in the classroom: EFL teachers’ perceptions. The Language Learning Journal, 46(5), 557–568.
Ramli, A., & Zain, R. M. (2018). The impact of facilities on student’s academic achievement. Sci.Int.(Lahore), 30(2), 299–311.
Ranjan, R., & Philominraj, A. (2020). Language Learning Strategies, Motivation and Gender in Foreign Language Context. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 591–604.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching (Third edition). Cambridge University Press.
Rijoly, H. M. (2017). Comprehensible input in language learning. Tahuri, 14(2), 31–40.
Salahshour, F., Sharifi, M., & Salahshour, N. (2013). The relationship between language learning strategy Use, language proficiency level and learner gender. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 634–643.
Sepasdar, M., & Soori, A. (2014). The impact of age on using language learning strategies. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 2(3).
Sun, H., Yin, B., Amsah, N. F. B. B., & O’Brien, B. A. (2018). Differential effects of internal and external factors in early bilingual vocabulary learning: The case of Singapore. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(2), 383–411.
Wharton, G. (2000). Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore. Language Learning, 50(2), 203–243.
Yu, Y., & Wang, B. (2009). A study of language learning strategy use in the context of EFL curriculum and pedagogy reform in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 29(4), 457–468.
Zein, S., Sukyadi, D., Hamied, F. A., & Lengkanawati, N. S. (2020). English language education in Indonesia: A review of research (2011–2019). Language Teaching, 53(4), 491–523.
Zhang, L. J., Thomas, N., & Qin, T. L. (2019). Language learning strategy research in System: Looking back and looking forward. System, 84, 87–92.
How to Cite
Etikasari, A., Oktavianti, I., & Ahmad, B. (2023). School-related Variables Support toward the Utilization of Language Learning Strategies in a Private Bilingual High School. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 8(1), 123-135.