Verbal Linguistics Intelligence and Self-Directed Learning in EFL Writing Problem Solving: A Study of Grit's Mediating Influence

  • Mujiono Mujiono Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang
Keywords: academic writing, EFL, grit, SDL, verbal linguistics intelligence


In EFL writing, the interplay of Verbal linguistic intelligence and self-directed learning, influenced by grit, is crucial for enhancing proficiency. This research aims to explore the intricate relationship between linguistic intelligence, independent learning, and the pivotal role of grit. A cross-sectional design was instituted, encompassing 228 participants, aged 20-25, from a renowned private university in Malang, Indonesia. The Grit Scale by Duckworth et al. (2007) gauged participants' perseverance, while tools grounded in Hayes and Flower's paradigms assessed self-directed Learning. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence was appraised using the MIDAS tool. The findings illuminate the intricate dynamics of Verbal linguistics lntelligence, self-directed learning, and grit in academic writing. Verbal Intelligence strongly correlated with the constructs, underscoring its cardinal role in academic writing and analytical capabilities. Grit emerged as a crucial mediator between Self-Directed Learning, Verbal Intelligence, and writing problem-solving strategies, presenting a promising avenue for targeted pedagogical interventions. This investigation bolsters the foundation of resilient educational assessment tools and magnifies the transformative potential of grit and linguistic prowess in sharpening analytical abilities. Further studies should expound upon these relationships across diverse landscapes, remaining mindful of inherent biases.

Keywords: academic writing, EFL, grit, self-directed learning, verbal linguistics, intelligence

Author Biography

Mujiono Mujiono, Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang
Department of English Education, Language and Literature Faculty, Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang


Al-Adwan, A. S., Nofal, M., Akram, H., Albelbisi, N. A., & Al-Okaily, M. (2022). Toward a sustainable adoption of e-learning system: the role of self-directed learning. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 21, 245–267.
Alghamdi, A. (2021). COVID-19 mandated self-directed distance learning: Experiences of Saudi female postgraduate students. Journal of University Teaching &Learning Practice.
Alqatanani, A. (2017). Do Multiple Intelligences Improving EFL Students’ Critical Reading Skills? Arab World English Journal, 8(1), 309–321.
Asmorowati, D., Wardani, S., & ... (2021). Analysis of student science process skills in the practicum of physical chemistry based on linguistic and interpersonal intelligence. … Journal of Active Learning.
Blaschke, L. M. (2021). The dynamic mix of heutagogy and technology: Preparing learners for lifelong learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(4), 1629–1645.
Chen, C. H., Hung, H. T., & Yeh, H. C. (2021). Virtual reality in problem‐based learning contexts: Effects on the problem‐solving performance, vocabulary acquisition and motivation of English language learners. JCAL (Journal of Computer Assisted Learning) , 37(3), 851–860.
Cheng, S. F., Kuo, C. L., Lin, K. C., & Lee-Hsieh, J. (2010). Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(9), 1152–1158.
Dakin, M. E., & Flynn, K. (2022). Journeys Inward: Do You Believe in Miracles? Sports Stories, Grit, and Resiliency. English Journal, 111(4), 104–106.
Depari, M. Y. B. (2023). The Effect of Student’s Intelligence in Writing Narrative Text at Grade X of SMA Methodist Berastagi. Formosa Journal of Sustainable Research (FJSR) , 2(5), 1343–1354.
Dewi, N. S., Hartiwi, J., Yani, N. A., & Sutiwi, S. (2023). The Implementation Of Linguistic Intelligence In Teaching Speaking Through Audio-Visual. Journal on Education, 5(4), 11106–11115.
Duckworth, A. (2016). Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. Scribner.
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087–1101.
Garavand, N., Azizifar, A., Gowhary, H., & Welidi, S. (2023). The Relationship Between Linguistic Intelligence of EFL Learners and Their Performance on Grammar. Journal of Language and Translation, 13(2), 151–161.
Gholami, M., Changaee, F., Karami, K., Shahsavaripour, Z., Veiskaramian, A., & Birjandi, M. (2021). Effects of multiepisode case-based learning (CBL) on problem-solving ability and learning motivation of nursing students in an emergency care course. Journal of Professional Nursing, 37(3), 612–619.
Güner, P., & Erbay, H. N. (2021). Metacognitive Skills and Problem-Solving. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 7(3), 715–734.
Haddaji, H. (2022). Incorporating Multiple Intelligences in L2 Writing Classes: New Horizons in Redefining the Classroom. International Journal of Language and Literary Studies, 4(3), 76–94.
Handayani, R., Sakkir, G., & Kasman, R. (2021b). The Influence of Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence on Students Learning Outcomes in English at SMA Negeri 1 Sidrap. EduLine: Journal of Education and Learning Innovation, 1(2), 141–148.
Hayes, J. R. (2012). Modeling and Remodeling Writing. Written Communication, 29(3), 369–388.
Hsieh, J. C. (2022b. Multimodal Digital Storytelling Presentations among Middle-School Learners of English as a Foreign Language: Emotions, Grit and Perceptions. RELC Journal.
Hwang, Y., & Oh, J. (2021). The relationship between self-directed learning and problem-solving ability: The mediating role of academic self-efficacy and self-regulated learning among nursing students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1–9.
Intan, S., Setyaningsih, S., Fansury, A. H., & Maulina, ; (2022). Verbal-linguistics intelligence toward students’ speaking English skills using digital media (audio visual) Iin the classroom. Klasikal: Journal of Education, Language Teaching and Science, 4(2), 296–306.
Kim, S., Jeong, S. H., Kim, H. S., & Jeong, Y. J. (2022b). Academic Success of Online Learning in Undergraduate Nursing Education Programs in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Journal of Professional Nursing, 38, 6–16.
Lam, K. K. L., & Zhou, M. (2022). Grit and academic achievement: A comparative cross-cultural meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology.
Lee, I., & Yuan, R. (Eric). (2021). Understanding L2 writing teacher expertise. Journal of Second Language Writing, 52.
Lee, J. S. (2022). The role of grit and classroom enjoyment in EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.
Liou, H. C., & Chiang, P. E. (2023). Online interaction, emotions, and EFL learners’ grit in collaborative writing. Japan Association for Language Teaching Computer Assisted Language Learning Journal (JALT CALL Journal), 19(1), 71–91.
Mehiri, R. (2020). Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory: Implications for Teachers and Students. ALTRALANG Journal, 2(1), 259–275.
Mirza, A., & Gottardo, A. (2022). The effects of second language literacy instruction on first language literacy: a comparison between Hindi–English and Urdu–English Canadian bilinguals. Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science, 6, 229–248.
Moorhouse, B. L., & Kohnke, L. (2021). Responses of the English-language-teaching community to the COVID-19 pandemic. RELC Journal, 52(3), 359–378.
Murtadho, F. (2021). Metacognitive and critical thinking practices in developing EFL students’ argumentative writing skills. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10(3), 656–666.
Oxford, R., & Khajavy, G. H. (2021a). Exploring Grit: “Grit Linguistics” and Research on Domain-General Grit and L2 Grit. Journal for the Psychology of Language Learning, 3(2), 7–36.
Raković, M., Iqbal, S., Li, T., Fan, Y., Singh, S., Surendrannair, S., Kilgour, J., van der Graaf, J., Lim, L., Molenaar, I., Bannert, M., Moore, J., & Gašević, D. (2023). Harnessing the potential of trace data and linguistic analysis to predict learner performance in a multi-text writing task. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 39(3), 703–718.
Rezai, A., Namaziandost, E., & ... (2022). Developmental potential of self-assessment reports for high school students’ writing skills: A qualitative study. Teaching English as a Second Language Quarterly (TESLQ) , 41(2), 163–203.
Rini, R., Sukamto, I., & Hariri, H. (2022). The Effect of Self-Directed Learning on Students’ Digital Literacy Levels in Online Learning. International Journal of Instruction, 15(3), 329–344.
Schweder, S., & Raufelder, D. (2021). Needs satisfaction and motivation among adolescent boys and girls during self-directed learning intervention. Journal of Adolescence, 88, 1–13.
Simanjuntak, M. P., Hutahaean, J., Marpaung, N., & Ramadhani, D. (2021). Effectiveness of problem-based learning combined with computer simulation on students’ problem-solving and creative thinking skills. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 519–534.
Sinclair, J., Jang, E. E., & Rudzicz, F. (2021). Using machine learning to predict children’s reading comprehension from linguistic features extracted from speech and writing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(6), 1088–1106.
Solhi, M., Derakhshan, A., & Ünsal, B. (2023a). Associations between EFL students’ L2 grit, boredom coping strategies, and emotion regulation strategies: A structural equation modeling approach. Ournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 0(0), 1–17.
Song, K. (2021). E-portfolio implementation: Examining learners’ perception of usefulness, self-directed learning process and value of learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 37(1), 37.
Sri Asmorowati, D., Wardani, S., & Widhi Mahatmanti, F. (2021). International Journal of Active Learning Analysis of Student Science Process Skills in The Practicum of Physical Chemistry Based on Linguistic and Interpersonal Intelligence. International Journal of Active Learning, 6(1), 34–40.
Taniguchi, S. T., Bennion, J., Duerden, M. D., Widmer, M. A., & Ricks, M. (2017). Self-Efficacy of Risk Taking in Outdoor Recreation as a Predictor of the Self-Efficacy of Risk Taking in Essay Writing. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 9(4), 425–438.
Ulaywi, R. K. (2021). Cognitive Activation Strategy as an Innovative Teaching Trend to EFL Students in Writing Skill. Al-Adab Journal, 2(137), 29–42.
Vasu, K. A., Mei Fung, Y., Nimehchisalem, V., & Md Rashid, S. (2022). Self-Regulated Learning Development in Undergraduate ESL Writing Classrooms: Teacher Feedback Versus Self-Assessment. RELC Journal, 53(3), 612–626.
Yang, D., Skelcher, S., & Gao, F. (2021). An Investigation of Teacher Experiences in Learning the Project-Based Learning Approach. In Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn). ERIC.
Zhao, X. (2022a). Leveraging Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology for English Writing: Introducing Wordtune as a Digital Writing Assistant for EFL Writers. RELC Journal, 0(0), 1–5.
Zhao, X. (2022b). Leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) technology for English writing: Introducing Wordtune as a digital writing assistant for EFL writers. RELC Journal.
How to Cite
Mujiono, M. (2023). Verbal Linguistics Intelligence and Self-Directed Learning in EFL Writing Problem Solving: A Study of Grit’s Mediating Influence. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 8(2), 247-262.